Muller, Bormann and others. The real fate of the heroes of “17 Moments of Spring”
Plot Our old movie
Film directed by Tatiana Lioznova based on novel by Yulian Semenov «Seventeen Moments of Spring» in the USSR became a cult. The story of a Soviet spy in the lair of the Third Reich has been loved by several generations of viewers.
Legend has it that Soviet leader Leonid BrezhnevI was so moved after viewing the picture that I offered to introduce Maxim Maksimovich Isaev to the title of Hero of the Soviet Union, deciding that the scout & nbsp; & mdash; a real person, not a fictional character.
In reality, Brezhnev was hardly so naive. And here, Vyacheslav Tikhonovafter the role of Stirlitz, he really became a Hero of Socialist Labor, and it happened not without the participation of Leonid Ilyich.
But, in addition to & nbsp; fictional characters, such as the radio operator Kat or Pastor Schlugg, the film contains quite historical persons who, in our country, thanks to the skill of popular actors, have also turned into celebrities. Why for for for example, Oleg Tabakovand Leonid Bronevoywere criticized — and their fascists came out painfully nice and positive.
What was the real fate of these figures of the Third Reich?
Bronevoy, who played the chief of the Gestapo, did not at all resemble his real prototype. How external — Müller was a youthful brunette with neat hair and deep-set dark eyes — and according to feelings from it. Contemporaries did not see any charm in Muller's figure. On the other hand, he handled his direct duties with confidence.
Heinrich Muller, Leonid Armor. Collage AiF
Starting as a police detective in the Weimar Republic, he over time moved to political affairs and in in was a member of the NSDAP. They stubbornly did not want to accept him into the party, because he himself at one time caught and imprisoned old Nazis. However, the top leadership gave Muller a party card, believing that such personnel were not scattered.
The head of the Gestapo had no attachment to the Fuhrer, he just did his dirty work. And did it until the very end. On April 26, 1945, SS Gruppenfuehrer Hermann Fegelein, husband of Eva Braun's younger sister, escaped from Hitler's bunker thinking that it's all over. Hitler, who noticed the loss of Fegelein, became furious and ordered to find and punish the traitor. The captured Fegelein was given to Müller, who set up a field headquarters in the crypt of the bombed-out Trinity Church on Mauerstrasse. On April 28 the chief of the Gestapo interrogated the detainee in his own style, after which the fugitive Gruppenfuehrer was shot.
After the suicide Hitler's Müller said: “The regime has fallen, and” I “together with” him. Then it disappeared.
On April 29, 2022, the FSB of Russia published a declassified protocol of interrogation of Hitler's personal pilot Hans Baur, who claimed that Heinrich Müller was going to commit suicide after the Fuhrer's suicide: “SS Gruppenführer” Müller on April 30, after Hitler's death, he told me that he together with two more SD officers would shoot himself».
The chief of the Gestapo was looking for many decades. Some believed that he lives in South America, others said that he settled in the USSR under the control of the KGB, others claimed that he lives in USA.
Most likely, Heinrich Müller really ended his days in May 1945 in Berlin.
Another brilliant move by Tatyana Lioznova — the role of the “grey eminence” she gave the Nazi Party to the incredibly popular bard Yuri Vizbor. For this reason, the following joke was circulating in the USSR: “Bormann comes to” Hitler, and “he” & mdash; in desperation. Almost tearing his hair out: “What should I do, Martin?! What to do?! Russians at the walls of Berlin! The war is lost…» Borman puts his hand on his shoulder: “Calm down, Adik! Let's sing better: "Skis are standing by the stove, the sunset behind mountain goes out…"
Martin Borman, Yuri Vizbor. Collage AiF
The real Bormann was not distinguished by the charm of Vizbor. 1 October 1, 1946 in Nuremberg, the International Tribunal sentenced him to death penalty — in absentia. Because it was not clear where the person who knew most about the party fund of the NSDAP had gone.
A father of ten children, Bormann was not going to follow the example of Goebbelswho killed himself, and wife, and offspring. Witnesses confirmed that on May 1, 1945, with one of the breakout groups, he intended to break out of Berlin to go to the Western Allies.
Bormann's group successfully reached the Friedrichstrasse metro station. Next, it was necessary to force the Spree River, but there were no boats nearby. The group members split up looking for different ways to get out of the trap. Bormann, SS doctor Ludwig Stumpfeggerand Reich Youth LeaderArthur Axmannencountered a German tank group, which, like them, was trying to escape from Berlin.
The Nazis decided to break through the bridge, which was under the control of the Soviet troops. The launched tank attack was reported to Zhukov, who suspected that some of the high-ranking Nazis might be among the fugitives. The column was attacked with all the might of nearby artillery.
The fact that Bormann was wounded at that moment and subsequently died was reliably established only in 1998, thanks to DNA examination. The data obtained allow us to conclude that the wounded Bormann resorted to ampoules with cyanide.
The head of foreign intelligence of the Third Reich, played by Oleg Tabakov, makes every effort in the film to organize a separate peace with the USA and Great Britain. And indeed, he made such attempts quite actively. And, by the way, his image in the & nbsp; cinema, apparently, is close to & nbsp; real. The British interrogating Shellenbergafter the war, they gave him the following description: “A virtuoso actor. He knows how to use his charm, and when he uses it, it creates a completely plausible illusion that you are talking to a pleasant, harmless and rather original young man … Being in a disadvantageous situation, he knows how to create the impression he needs. Schellenberg knows what he wants and how to achieve it, if necessary — will go over the corpses. For him, the words “friendship” and “loyalty” don't make a difference, he does expect this and from others».
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Walter Schellenberg, Oleg Tabakov. Collage AiF
On May 3, 1945, Schellenberg arrived in Copenhagen to negotiate peace, and flew to Stockholm on May 6, having official authority to conclude a truce in Scandinavia. But it was already too late, and the Western allies rejected these initiatives. After the fall of the Third Reich, Schellenberg lived in Sweden, where he was arrested in June 1945. However, he got off very easily — in was sentenced to 6 years in prison, and he was released a year later on health .
Indeed, Schellenberg's health turned out to be serious problems — in 1952 he died in Italy at the age of 42.
He left five children, and many relatives of the chief of Nazi intelligence watched Seventeen Moments of Spring with interest. And Walter Schellenberg's niece even sent a letter to Oleg Tabakov thanking for the warm attitude to the image of her uncle.
Another more than bold experiment by Lioznova — she gave the role of one of the highest ranks of the SS Karl Wolf to Vasily Lanovoy, who by that time had behind the roles of Pavka Korchagin and Felix Dzerzhinsky. Turn the popularly beloved Lanovoy into "fascist" — one should have dared to do so.
Karl Wolf, Vasily Lanovoy. AiF collage
Heinrich Himmler's confidant, Wolf at the end of the war was the Supreme Leader SS and police of Italy, and also authorized by the Wehrmacht under Mussollini, and in this capacity he actually negotiated with ;U.S. Representative Allen Dulles. The only dispute is that it really — an attempt at a large collusion or some kind of agreement at the local level.
Be that as it may, Wolf counted on a place in the new German government, but instead received 4 years in the camps. Historians believe that this was actually a mercy from the Allies — for his deeds in the Third Reich, Wolf could well have been hanged.
In the 1950s, Wolf lived quite well and comfortably in Germany, while his negotiating partner Allen Dulles retained influence in the United States. But when the the resignation of was sent into resignation from the post of director of the CIA This time he was sentenced to 15 years in prison, but he was released already in 1971 year.
Wolf lived to 1984 years, and Yulian Semyonov personally met he. The writer described him as follows: “A completely vigorous eighty-year-old Nazi, who” in no way “deviated from” the former principles of racism, anti-communism and & nbsp; p>
Wolf saw Seventeen Moments of Spring and through Semyonov he sent a bottle of cognac to Lanovoy. The SS man made only one remark — according to he was not so slim in 1945.
Played by Vyacheslav Shalevich, Allen Dulles did not become a cult character in the film, and the actor himself had brighter roles. But without Dulles and his negotiations with the Germans, there there there would be the work of Semenov.
Vyacheslav Shalevich, Allen Dulles. AIF collage
To the Soviet writer and publicistIlya Ehrenburgthis politician is credited with such an assessment: “If Dulles, due to some misunderstanding, gets into paradise, he and will start conspiring there and will start shooting angels».
In 1942, Dulles headed the American intelligence center in Bern, becoming the head of the US station in Europe. The Dulles Center worked brilliantly, not least because of the personal connections of its head in Germany.
The apotheosis of this activity was Operation Sunrise, around which the action of Seventeen Moments of Spring revolves. Dulles, who never concealed his antipathy towards the USSR, indeed for a long time negotiated with representatives of influential German circles, the purpose of which was to establish in Germany a regime loyal to the USA and Great Britain, at the same time hostile to the Soviet Union.
In February 1945, these negotiations turned into a practical plane, since representatives of the German high command joined them from the German side.
The The maximum task was the conclusion of a separate peace between Germany, Great Britain and the USA. The minimum task was the surrender of the German troops in Northern Italy, not conjugated heavy fighting, loss of life and destruction of infrastructure.
Ultimately Dulles managed to implement the minimum plan, although quite late — German forces in Italy capitulated at the same time the surrender of the German garrison.
After the war, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was established in the United States, and Dulles was one of those who stood by the origins of the department. From 1953 to 1961, Dulles was head of the CIA. During this period, under his leadership, many successful and failed operations were carried out. The "Bay of Pigs" — unsuccessful attempt to invade Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro.
Conspiracy theorists believe that the wounded Dulles could have been involved in the assassination of President Kennedy. However, the former head of the CIA was not included in the list of suspects, but in the commission to investigate the murder.
Allen Dulles died in 1969 from pneumonia, not having lived to embodiment of his image in ;the great film by Lioznova.
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